2015
3
1
5
80
ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of laser beam at tilted concave and convex elliptic paraboloid interfaces and studying laser beam reflection from a tilted concave parabola of revolution
2
2
Studying Gaussian beam is a method to investigate laser beam propagation and ABCD matrix is a fast and simple method to simulate Gaussian beam propagation in different mediums. Of the ABCD matrices studied so far, reflection and refraction matrices at various surfaces have attracted a lot of researches. However in previous work the incident beam and the principle axis of surface are in parallel. As an extension to those investigations, a general scheme that the incident beam is oblique is discussed here and the full analysis of the reflection and refraction of a Gaussian beam at the surface of a tilted concave/convex elliptic paraboloid surface is addressed. Based on the optical phase matching, analytic mathematical equations are derived for the spot size and the wavefront radius of a beam. Expressions are converted into the ABCD matrices, which are more convenient and practical to use. Finally, a practical case is analyzed by applying the obtained formulas. This analysis is important since paraboloid surfaces in optics or terahertz waves are used as mirrors or lenses.
1

1
11


Mojtaba
Mansour Abadi
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab),
Iran


Zabih
Ghassemlooy
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab),
Iran


David
Smith
Microwave Imaging Research Group, Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Microwave Imaging Research Group, Northumbria
Iran


Wai
Pang Ng
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab),
Iran
Laser Beam
Gaussian Beam
ABCD Matrix
Reflection
Refraction
Tilted Surface
Convex/Concave Elliptic
Paraboloid Surface
[[1] H. Kogelnik and T. Li, "Laser beams and resonators," Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 15501567, 1966. ##[2] M. Shabani and A. A. Shishegar, "Vectorial Gaussian beam expansion for highfrequency wave propagation," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol. 4, pp. 20142023, 2010. ##[3] C. Qi, X. Shi, and G. Wang, "Highorder circuitlevel thermal model of verticalcavity surfaceemitting lasers," IET Optoelectronics, vol. 5, pp. 1927, 2011. ##[4] Z. Zhao, K. Duan, and B. Lü, "NonequiphaseHermite–Gaussian model of diodelaserbeams," Optik  International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, vol. 119, pp. 167170, 2008. ##[5] J. H. Song, "Fibre coupling tolerance modelling of uniform grating coupler on silicon on insulator," Electronics Letters, vol. 47, pp. 12901292, 2011. ##[6] A. Chabory, J. r. m. Sokoloff, S. Bolioli, and P. F. o. Combes, "Computation of electromagnetic scattering by multilayer dielectric objects using Gaussian beam based techniques," ComptesRendus Physique, vol. 6, pp. 654662, 2005/8/ 2005. [7] A. Chabory, J. Sokoloff, and S. Bolioli, "Physically based expansion on conformal Gaussian beams for the radiation of ##curved aperture in dimension 2," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol. 2, pp. 152157, 2008. ##[8] J. S. Gardner, "Approximate expansion of a narrow Gaussian beam in spherical vector wave functions," Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 55, pp. 31723177, 2007. ##[9] I. Toselli, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and V. Ferrero, "Free space optical system performance for a Gaussian beam propagating through nonKolmogorov weak turbulence," Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 57, pp. 17831788, 2009. ##[10] H. Mao and D. Zhao, "Intensity distribution and coherence property for the broadband Gaussian Schellmodel array beams in free space," Optics Communications, vol. 284, pp. 37953801, 2011. ##[11] R. Shavit, J. Sangiolo, and T. Monk, "Scattering analysis of arbitrarily shaped cylinders in a focused beam systemoblique incidence case," IEE Proceedings  Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 148, pp. 7378, 2001. ##[12] W. ZhenSen, L. ZhengJun, L. Huan, Y. QiongKun, and L. HaiYing, "Offaxis Gaussian beam scattering by an anisotropic coated sphere," Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, pp. 47404748, 2011. ##[13] C. Rieckmann, M. R. Rayner, and C. G. Parini, "Diffracted Gaussian beam analysis of quasioptical multireflector systems," Electronics Letters, vol. 36, pp. 16001601, 2000. ##[14] H. T. Chou and P. H. Pathak, "Fast Gaussian beam based synthesis of shaped reflector antennas for contoured beam applications," Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, IEE Proceedings, vol. 151, pp. 1320, 2004. ##[15] D. Lugara, D. Lugara, A. Boag, and C. Letrou, "Gaussian beam tracking through a curved interface: comparison with a method of moments," IEE Proceedings  Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 150, pp. 4955, 2003. ##[16] H. Liu, L. Liu, R. Xu, and Z. Luan, "ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian beams at the surface of a parabola of revolution," Appl. Opt., vol. 44, pp. 48094813, 2005. ##[17] Y. Yu and W. Dou, "ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian beams on the interface of an elliptic paraboloid," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, vol. 31, pp. 13041311, 2010. ##[18] G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, "Reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at tilted ellipsoidal surfaces," Appl. Opt., vol. 8, pp. 975978, 1969. ##[19] S. Gangopadhyay and S. Sarkar, "ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at surfaces of hyperboloid of revolution and efficiency computation for laser diode to singlemode fiber coupling by way of a hyperbolic lens on the ϐiber tip," Appl. Opt., vol. 36, pp. 85828586, 1997. ##[20] T. J. Finn, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, and S. Withington, "The Gaussian beam mode analysis of offaxis aberrations in long wavelength optical systems," Infrared Physics Technology, vol. 51, pp. 351359, 2008. ##[21] A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Realtime terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters)," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, pp. 1411253, 2006. ##[22] X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, "Terahertz quasinearfield realtime imaging," Optics Communications, vol. 282, pp. 46834687, 2009. ##[23] R. Yano, H. Gotoh, Y. Hirayama, T. Hattori, and S. Miyashita, "Synthesis of terahertz electromagnetic wave pulses using amplitudeandphase masks," Chemical Physics, vol. 326, pp. 577582, 2006. ##[24] B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of photonics. New York, Chichester: Wiley, 1991. ##[25] D. E. Goldberg, Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning. Reading, Mass: AddisonWesley, 1989. ##[26] J. F. Bonnans, Numerical optimization: theoretical and practical aspects, 2nd ed. ed. Berlin, New York: Springer, 2006. ##[27] B. Stephen and V. Lieven, Convex Optimization: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ##]
FSR Decrement and Coupling Coefficient Increment in AddDrop Filters
2
2
In this paper, effects of the structural parameters on the optical characteristics of an adddrop filter, consisting of two straight waveguides and a microring resonator (MRR), have been investigated. In this research, effects of MRR radius, the width of MRR and waveguide and the gap between MRR and waveguide, on free spectral range (FSR) and coupling coefficient have been studied. It is found thatby enhancing the gap and width, coupling coefficient would be increased at first but after a while it would be decreased. It is also shown that, increasing the radius and width would decrease FSR. The main goal of this research is to decrease FSR and increase the coupling coefficient of adddrop filters, which are widely used in communication applications.
1

13
16


Esmat
Rafiee
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Fars, Iran
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of
Iran
e.rafiee@sutech.ac.ir


Farzin
Emami
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Fars, Iran
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of
Iran
emami@sutech.ac.ir
Adddrop filter
Coupling coefficient
Free spectral range
Micro ring resonator
[[1] H. Yan, “Integrated optical adddrop multiplexer based on compact parent_submicroringresonator structure,” Optics Communications, Vol. 289, pp. 5359, 2013. [ ##2] D. Zhang, Z. Feng, “A channel drop filter in heterowoodpile structure”, Optik International Journal for Light and electron Optics. Vol. 125, Issue. 10, pp. 24222425, 2014. ##[3] P.P. Yupapin, N. Sarapat, “Novel microscale sensors using WGMS within modified adddrop filter circuits”, Microwave and optical technology letters. Vol. 56, Issue. 1, pp. 1417, 2014. ##[4] D.G. Rabus, Integrated ring resonators, The Compendium, SpringerVerlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 416, 2007. ##[5] L.F. Mollenauer, J.P. Gordon, Soliton in Optical Fibers: Fundamentals and Applications, 1sted. , Academic Press, pp. 3075, 2006. ##[6] Y. Su, F. Liu, Q. Li, “System performance of slowlight buffering and storage in silicon nanowaveguide”, Optical Transmission, Switching, and Subsystems V, Proc. of SPIE. Vol. 6783, pp. 678328, 2007. ##[7] G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear ϐiber optics, 4th ed., Academic Press, pp. 150190, 2007. ##[8] I.N. Nawi, H.Hairi, “Analytical Treatment of Parametric Effects in a Ring Resonator”, Procedia Engineering. Vol. 8, pp. 366 373, 2011. ##[9] Y. Wang, H. Zhu, B. Li, “Optical characterization of mechanically tunable micro wire based resonators by changing ring radius and wire diameter”, Opt. commun. Vol. 284, Issue. 13, pp. 32763279, 2011. ##[10] O. Schwelb, “Transmission group delay and dispersion characteristics of singlering optical resonators and add/drop filters – A tutorial overview”, J. Lightw. Technol. Vol. 22, Issue. 5, pp. 13801394, 2004.##]
Effect of Nonlinear Phase Variation in Optical Millimetre Wave Radio over Fibre Systems
2
2
In this paper, we propose an optical millimetre wave radiooverfibre (mmwave RoF) system that uses a dual drive Mach Zehnder modulator (DDMZM), which is biased at the maximum transmission biasing point, to generate an optical double sidebandsuppressed carrier. The input to the DDMZM are binary phase shift keying (BPSK), quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 8phase shift keying (8PSK) and 16qaudrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) schemes at a carrier frequency of 5 GHz with a rate of 2 Gsym/s and a local oscillator of 15 GHz obtain an mmwave RoF signal at 30 GHz. We evaluate the generation and performances of the proposed system in terms of the power penalty, the error vector magnitude and the bit error rate (BER). Impairments including the selfphase modulation, chromatic dispersion and attenuation are considered when modelling the single mode fibre (SMF) based on the symmetrical split step Fourier method. We show that the power efficiency improves in the optimum region on average by ~11 dB, ~11 dB, ~12 dB and ~18 dB for BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM, respectively for the same optical launch power over 10, 30 and 50 km of SMF compared to the linear and nonlinear regions.
1

17
27


Arash
Bahrami
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab,
Iran
arash.bahrami@northumbria.ac.uk


Wai
Pang Ng
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab,
Iran


Zabih
Ghassemlooy
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab,
Iran


Thavamaran
Kanesan
TM Research & Development, TM Innovation Centre, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
TM Research & Development, TM Innovation
Iran
drthavamaran@tmrnd.com.my
[[1] T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, et al., “Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!” Access, IEEE. 2013, 1, pp. 335349. ##[2] V. Dyadyuk, J. D. Bunton, J. Pathikulangara, R. Kendall, O. Sevimli, L. Stokes, et al., “A Multigigabit MillimeterWave Communication System With Improved Spectral Efficiency, Microwave Theory and Techniques”, IEEE Transactions on. 2007, 55(12), pp. 28132821. ##[3] J. Libich, M. Komanec, S. Zvanovec, P. Pesek , W. O. Popoola, and, Z. Ghassemlooy, “Experimental verification of an alloptical dualhop 10 Gbit/s freespace optics link under turbulence regimes”, Optics Letters, 40 (3), 99. 391394, Feb. 2015. ##[4] H. Hao, Y. JengYuan, Y. Yang, R. Yongxiong, S. R. Nuicco, R. Dinu, et al. “100Gbit/s amplitude and phase modulation characterization of a singledrive, lowVπ polymer MachZehnder modulator”, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference; 48 March 2012. ##[5] C. HungChang, H. YuTing, A. Chowdhury, Y. Jianjun, and C . GeeKung, “On FrequencyDoubled Optical MillimeterWave Generation Technique Without Carrier Suppression for InBuilding Wireless Over Fiber Applications”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE. 2010, 22(3), pp. 182184. ##[6] L. Jie, C. HungChang, F. ShuHao, C. Biao, Y. Jianjun, H. Sailing, et al. “Efficient Optical MillimeterWave Generation Using a FrequencyTripling FabryPérot Laser With Sideband Injection and Synchronization”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, 2011, 23(18), pp. 13251327. ##[7] M. Pochet, T. Locke, and N. G. Usechak, “Generation and Modulation of a MillimeterWave Subcarrier on an Optical Frequency Generated via Optical Injection”, Photonics Journal, IEEE, 2012, 4(5), pp. 18811891. ##[8] S. Yufeng, C. Nan, F. Jingyuan, and F. Wuliang, “Generation of 16QAMOFDM Signals Using Selected Mapping Method and Its Application in Optical MillimeterWave Access System”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, 2012, 24(15), pp.13013. ##[9] C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. L. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RFoverfiber links and their impact on device design”, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, 2006, 54(2), pp. 906920. ##[10] T. Kanesan, W. P. Ng, Z. Ghassemlooy, and J. Perez, "Optimization of Optical Modulator for LTE RoF in Nonlinear Fiber Propagation," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE vol. 24, pp. 617619, 2012. Our own publication that focuses on chirping. ##[11] M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, E. J. M Verdurmen, and J. P Turkiewicz, “Dispersion tolerant radiooverfibre transmission of 16 and 64 QAM radio signals at 40 GHz”, Electronics Letters, 2006, 42(15), pp. 872874. ##[12] A. Madjar, and T. Berceli, “Microwave Generation by Optical Techniques  A Review”, Microwave Conference, 2006 36th European, 2006, pp. 1015 Sept. 2006. ##[13] Y. Jianping, Microwave Photonics. Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2009, 27(3), pp. 314335. ##[14] M. ianxin, J. Yu, Y. Chongxiu, X . Xiangjun, Z. Junying, and L. Chen, “Fiber Dispersion Influence on Transmission of the Optical MillimeterWaves Generated Using LNMZM Intensity Modulation, Lightwave Technology”, Journal of, 2007, 25(11), pp. 32443256. ##[15] S. PoTsung, J. Chen, L. ChunTing, J. WenJr, HanSheng, H. PengChun P, et al, “Optical MillimeterWave Signal Generation Via Frequency 12Tupling, Lightwave Technology”, Journal of, 2010, 28(1), pp. 718. ##[16] F. Paresys, T. Shao, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Bidirectional Millimeterwave RadiooverFiber System Based on Photodiode Mixing and Optical Heterodyning”, Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of, 2013,5(1), pp. 7480. ##[17] Z. Weifeng, and Y. Jianping, “Photonic Generation of MillimeterWave Signals With Tunable Phase Shift”, Photonics Journal, IEEE, 2012, 4(3), pp. 889894. ##[18] W. YongYuk, H. MoonKi, S. YongHwan, and H. SangKook, “Colorless two Different Gigabit Data Access Transmissions using Optical Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier and Optical Sideband Slicing”, Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of, 2013, 5(6), pp. 544553. ##[19] C. Zizheng, Y. Jianjun, C. Lin, and S. Qinglong, “Reversely Modulated Optical Single Sideband Scheme and Its Application in a 60GHz Full Duplex ROF System”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, 2012, 24(10), pp. 827829. ##[20] H. YuTing, C. HungChang, A. Chowdhury, Y. Jianjun, and C. GeeKung, “Performance Assessment of Radio Links Using MillimeterWave Over Fiber Technology With Carrier Suppression Through Modulation Index Enhancement”, Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of, 2011, 3(3), pp. 254258. ##[21] K. Kyoungsoo, L. Jaehoon, and J. Jichai, “SPMinduced Power Gain in Optical Subcarriermultiplexed Transmission Systems”, Optical Internet (COIN), 2010, 9th International Conference on, 1114 July 2010. ##[22] D. Liang Bangyuan, and A. J. Lowery, “Practical XPM Compensation Method for Coherent Optical OFDM Systems”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, 2010, 22(5), pp. 320322. ##[23] N. M. Nawawi, and S. M. Idrus, “Investigation of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering for the Generation of Millimeter Waves for Radio over Fiber System”, Telecommunication Technologies, 6th National Conference on and 2nd Malaysia Conference on Photonics NCTTMCP 2008, 2628 Aug. 2008. ##[24] M. Lucki “Engineered Chromatic Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fibers Selectively Doped with Water”, Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 12th International Conference on; June 27 July 1 2010. ##[25] L. MingJun, L. Shenping, and D. A. Nolan, “Nonlinear Fibers for Signal Processing using Optical Kerr Effects”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2005, 23(11), pp. 36063614. ##[26] P. Mitchell, A. Janssen, and J. K. Luo, “High Performance Laser Linewidth Broadening for Stimulated Brillouin Suppression with Zero Parasitic Amplitude Modulation”, Journal of Applied Physics, 2009, 105(9), pp. 0931046. ##[27] Yan G, and Liantang L, Editors, Influence of Spacetime Focusing and Simulated Raman Scattering on spatiotemporal Instability in Dispersive Nonlinear Media, Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/NanoOptics (AOM), OSAIEEECOS, 36 Dec. 2010. ##[28] Y. M. Karfaa, M. Ismail, F. M. Abbou, S. Shaari, and S. P. Majumder, “Effects of Fourwave Mixing Crosstalk in WDM Networks on the Transmitted Optical Frequencies and Wavelengths of Channels for Various Fiber Types”, AppliedElectromagnetics, APACE 2007, AsiaPaciϐic Conference on, 4 6 Dec. 2007. ##[29] A. Dewanjee, M. S. Islam, M. S Monjur, and S. P. Majumder, “Impact of Crossphase and Selfphase Modulation on the Performance of a Multispan WDM System”, Communications (MICC), IEEE 9th Malaysia International Conference on, 1517 Dec. 2009. ##[30] H. Shams, P. M. Anandarajah, P. Perry, and L. P. Barry, “Optical Generation of Modulated Millimeter Waves Based on a GainSwitched Laser”, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, 2010, 58(11), pp. 33723380. ##[31] Q. Guohua, Y. Jianping, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, Z. Xiupu, “PhaseNoise Analysis of Optically Generated MillimeterWave Signals With External Optical Modulation Techniques”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2006, 24(12), pp. 48614875. ##[32] L. N. Binh, “Optical Fiber Communications Systems: Theory and Practice with MATLAB® and Simulink® Models” Photonics Oa, editor: CRC Press; 2010. pp. 560. ##[33] M. Y. Hamza, and S. Tariq, “Split Step Fourier Method Based Pulse Propagation Model for Nonlinear Fiber Optics”, Electrical Engineering, ICEE '07 International Conference on, 1112 April 2007. ##[34] R. Deiterding, R. Glowinski, H. Oliver, and S. A. Poole, “Reliable SplitStep Fourier Method for the Propagation Equation of UltraFast Pulses in SingleMode Optical Fibers”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2013, 31(12), pp. 200817. [35] O. V. Sinkin, R Holzlohner, J. Zweck, and C. R. Menyuk, “Optimization of the Splitstep Fourier method in Modeling Opticalfiber Communications Systems”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2003, 21(1), pp. 618. ##[36] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fibre Optics, Academic Press 2001. ##[37] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers, Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester. 2006. ##[38] Z. Qun, and M. I. Hayee, “Symmetrized SplitStep Fourier Scheme to Control Global Simulation Accuracy in FiberOptic Communication Systems”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2008, 26(2), pp. 302316. ##[39] I. Otung, Communication Engineering Principles, Palgrave, 2001. ##[40] J. Beas, G. Castanon, I. Aldaya, A. AragonZavala, and G. Campuzano, “MillimeterWave Frequency Radio over Fiber Systems: A Survey”, Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, 2013, PP(99), pp. 127. ##[41] S. P. Singh, and N. Singh, “Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers: Origin, Management and Applications”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2007, 73, pp. 249275.##]
Biding Strategy in Restructured Environment of Power Market Using Game Theory
2
2
In the restructured environment of electricity market, firstly the generating companies and the customers are looking for maximizing their profit and secondly independent system operator is looking for the stability of the power network and maximizing social welfare. In this paper, a one way auction in the electricity market for the generator companies is considered in both perfect and imperfect competition cases. A new model is provided to use the historical data of power market in the state of competition with imperfect information in which two probability functions were simultaneously used for the estimation of required information about each generator company. Nash equilibrium in the game theory is used to find the stability point in the biding strategy of generator companies. The effect of network conditions like limitation of transmission lines, network load, maximum generation of each generator company and the imperfect estimation of information about other competitors on the profit of generator companies and also on the market power of the generators in two mentioned competition methods were shown in the numerical simulation.
1

29
36


Javad
Shadmani
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Iran
javad.shadmani@yahoo.com


Masoud
Rashidinejad
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty
Iran


Amir
Abdollahi
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
a.abdollahi@uk.ac.ir


Iman
Taheri
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
i.taheriemami@gmail.com
Power market
Game theory
Bidding Strategy
Perfect Information
Imperfect Information
[[1] H. Yan, “Integrated optical adddrop multiplexer based on compact parent_submicroringresonator structure,” Optics Communications, vol. 289, pp. 5359, 2013. ##[2] D. Zhang, Z. Feng, “A channel drop filter in heterowoodpile structure,” Optik International Journal for Light and electron Optics, vol. 125, Issue. 10, pp. 24222425, 2014. ##[3] P.P. Yupapin, N. Sarapat, “Novel microscale sensors using WGMS within modified adddrop filter circuits,” Microwave and optical technology letters, vol. 56, Issue. 1, pp. 1417, 2014. ##[4] D.G. Rabus, Integrated ring resonators, The Compendium, SpringerVerlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 416, 2007. ##[5] L.F. Mollenauer, J.P. Gordon, Soliton in Optical Fibers: Fundamentals and Applications, 1sted. , Academic Press, pp. 3075, 2006. ##[6] Y. Su, F. Liu, Q. Li, “System performance of slowlight buffering and storage in silicon nanowaveguide,” Optical Transmission, Switching, and Subsystems V, Proc. of SPIE, vol. 6783, pp. 678328, 2007. ##[7] G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear ϐiber optics, 4th ed., Academic Press, pp. 150190, 2007. ##[8] I.N. Nawi, H.Hairi, “Analytical Treatment of Parametric Effects in a Ring Resonator,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 366 373, 2011. ##[9] Y. Wang, H. Zhu, B. Li, “Optical characterization of mechanically tunable micro wire based resonators by changing ring radius and wire diameter,” Opt. commun, vol. 284, Issue. 13, pp. 32763279, 2011. ##[10] O. Schwelb, “Transmission group delay and dispersion characteristics of singlering optical resonators and add/drop filters – A tutorial overview,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 22, Issue. 5, pp. 13801394, 2004.##]
Analysis and Comparison of PAPR Reduction Techniques in OFDM Systems
2
2
The destructive impact of fading environments and also bandwidth limitations are two main challenges which communication is dealing with them. These challenges can affect on the growth of wireless communication and even cause reliable communications and high data rate to be prevented. Thus, OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation by using of fast calculation hardwares such as FFT, high ability for combating multipath fading and appropriate spectral efficiency has taken into consideration. However, we should know that OFDM systems potentially have high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). This drawback drives the power amplifier into saturation leading to higher distortions and also degrades BER performance. Since increasing the dynamic range of power amplifier is not affordable, reduction of the PAPR is so important. In this paper, we investigate the PAPR and its reduction methods by using the theoretical and numerical analysis. These techniques can be classified into two main categories, signal distortion techniques, multiple signaling and probabilistic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are derived from different prospectives. Moreover, we compare the numerical results of the techniques in the first classification from BER prospective which demonstrates that for changing the parameters corresponding to each technique, its performance can be changed greatly. Hence, we are sure that a technique can not outperform the other ones in all cases. Finally, the computational complexity of the techniques in the second classification are compared to each other which their results show that TR and TI techniques are much more complex than the other ones.
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37
45


Mohammad Bagher
Noori Shirazi
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Iran


Ali
Golestani
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Iran


Hamed
Ahmadian Yazdi
Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University,
Iran


Amir Habibi
Daronkola
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Iran
OFDM
PAPR
PAPR reduction methods
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TDLbased Wideband Beamforming for Radio Sources Close to the Array Endfire
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Uniform linear array (ULA)based tappeddelay line (TDL) structure has good performance metrics when the signal sources are located at the middle angles. It offers poor performance when the signal sources are close to the array endfire. In this paper, a new approach is proposed which offers higher performance and desired beamforming on TDL structure when the wideband uncorrelated radio sources are close to the array endfire. This new TDL structure is based on ShirvaniAkbari array (SAA). Numerical results of this investigation show that both ULAbased and SAAbased TDL structures have the same performance where the signals of interest located at the middle angles. But, where the signals are close to the array endfire, the SAAbased TDL structure has much higher performance. In order to find a good comparison, the absolute array factor (AF) in center frequency for different angles and three wellknown performance metrics, normalized mean square error (NMSE), signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) and bit error rate (BER) are evaluated for both ULAbased and SAAbased TDL structures.
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Nasrollah
Solgi
Digital Communications Signal Processing (DCSP) Research Lab., Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
Digital Communications Signal Processing
Iran
Array endfire
Uniform linear array (ULA)
ShirvaniAkbari array (SAA)
Tappeddelay line (TDL)
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