ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of laser beam at tilted concave and convex elliptic paraboloid interfaces and studying laser beam reflection from a tilted concave parabola of revolution
Studying Gaussian beam is a method to investigate laser beam propagation and ABCD matrix is a fast and simple method to simulate Gaussian beam propagation in different mediums. Of the ABCD matrices studied so far, reflection and refraction matrices at various surfaces have attracted a lot of researches. However in previous work the incident beam and the principle axis of surface are in parallel. As an extension to those investigations, a general scheme that the incident beam is oblique is discussed here and the full analysis of the reflection and refraction of a Gaussian beam at the surface of a tilted concave/convex elliptic paraboloid surface is addressed. Based on the optical phase matching, analytic mathematical equations are derived for the spot size and the wavefront radius of a beam. Expressions are converted into the ABCD matrices, which are more convenient and practical to use. Finally, a practical case is analyzed by applying the obtained formulas. This analysis is important since paraboloid surfaces in optics or terahertz waves are used as mirrors or lenses.
http://jecei.srttu.edu/article_338_54b123e5ddcbbd65f565357e294a4175.pdf
2015-06-01T11:23:20
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1
11
10.22061/jecei.2015.338
Laser Beam
Gaussian Beam
ABCD Matrix
Reflection
Refraction
Tilted Surface
Convex/Concave Elliptic
Paraboloid Surface
Mojtaba
Mansour Abadi
true
1
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
AUTHOR
Zabih
Ghassemlooy
true
2
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
LEAD_AUTHOR
David
Smith
true
3
Microwave Imaging Research Group, Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Microwave Imaging Research Group, Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Microwave Imaging Research Group, Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
AUTHOR
Wai
Pang Ng
true
4
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
Optical Communications Research Group (NCRLab), Northumbria University, NE1 8ST, UK
AUTHOR
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[2] M. Shabani and A. A. Shishegar, "Vectorial Gaussian beam expansion for high-frequency wave propagation," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol. 4, pp. 2014-2023, 2010.
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[3] C. Qi, X. Shi, and G. Wang, "High-order circuit-level thermal model of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IET Optoelectronics, vol. 5, pp. 19-27, 2011.
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[4] Z. Zhao, K. Duan, and B. Lü, "Non-equiphaseHermite–Gaussian model of diodelaserbeams," Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, vol. 119, pp. 167-170, 2008.
4
[5] J. H. Song, "Fibre coupling tolerance modelling of uniform grating coupler on silicon on insulator," Electronics Letters, vol. 47, pp. 1290-1292, 2011.
5
[6] A. Chabory, J. r. m. Sokoloff, S. Bolioli, and P. F. o. Combes, "Computation of electromagnetic scattering by multilayer dielectric objects using Gaussian beam based techniques," ComptesRendus Physique, vol. 6, pp. 654-662, 2005/8/ 2005. [7] A. Chabory, J. Sokoloff, and S. Bolioli, "Physically based expansion on conformal Gaussian beams for the radiation of
6
curved aperture in dimension 2," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol. 2, pp. 152-157, 2008.
7
[8] J. S. Gardner, "Approximate expansion of a narrow Gaussian beam in spherical vector wave functions," Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 55, pp. 3172-3177, 2007.
8
[9] I. Toselli, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and V. Ferrero, "Free space optical system performance for a Gaussian beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov weak turbulence," Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 57, pp. 1783-1788, 2009.
9
[10] H. Mao and D. Zhao, "Intensity distribution and coherence property for the broadband Gaussian Schell-model array beams in free space," Optics Communications, vol. 284, pp. 3795-3801, 2011.
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[11] R. Shavit, J. Sangiolo, and T. Monk, "Scattering analysis of arbitrarily shaped cylinders in a focused beam system-oblique incidence case," IEE Proceedings - Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 148, pp. 73-78, 2001.
11
[12] W. Zhen-Sen, L. Zheng-Jun, L. Huan, Y. Qiong-Kun, and L. HaiYing, "Off-axis Gaussian beam scattering by an anisotropic coated sphere," Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, pp. 4740-4748, 2011.
12
[13] C. Rieckmann, M. R. Rayner, and C. G. Parini, "Diffracted Gaussian beam analysis of quasi-optical multi-reflector systems," Electronics Letters, vol. 36, pp. 1600-1601, 2000.
13
[14] H. T. Chou and P. H. Pathak, "Fast Gaussian beam based synthesis of shaped reflector antennas for contoured beam applications," Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, IEE Proceedings, vol. 151, pp. 13-20, 2004.
14
[15] D. Lugara, D. Lugara, A. Boag, and C. Letrou, "Gaussian beam tracking through a curved interface: comparison with a method of moments," IEE Proceedings - Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 150, pp. 49-55, 2003.
15
[16] H. Liu, L. Liu, R. Xu, and Z. Luan, "ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian beams at the surface of a parabola of revolution," Appl. Opt., vol. 44, pp. 4809-4813, 2005.
16
[17] Y. Yu and W. Dou, "ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian beams on the interface of an elliptic paraboloid," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, vol. 31, pp. 1304-1311, 2010.
17
[18] G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, "Reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at tilted ellipsoidal surfaces," Appl. Opt., vol. 8, pp. 975-978, 1969.
18
[19] S. Gangopadhyay and S. Sarkar, "ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at surfaces of hyperboloid of revolution and efficiency computation for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling by way of a hyperbolic lens on the ϐiber tip," Appl. Opt., vol. 36, pp. 8582-8586, 1997.
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[20] T. J. Finn, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, and S. Withington, "The Gaussian beam mode analysis of off-axis aberrations in long wavelength optical systems," Infrared Physics Technology, vol. 51, pp. 351-359, 2008.
20
[21] A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters)," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, pp. 141125-3, 2006.
21
[22] X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, "Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging," Optics Communications, vol. 282, pp. 4683-4687, 2009.
22
[23] R. Yano, H. Gotoh, Y. Hirayama, T. Hattori, and S. Miyashita, "Synthesis of terahertz electromagnetic wave pulses using amplitude-and-phase masks," Chemical Physics, vol. 326, pp. 577-582, 2006.
23
[24] B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of photonics. New York, Chichester: Wiley, 1991.
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[25] D. E. Goldberg, Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1989.
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[26] J. F. Bonnans, Numerical optimization: theoretical and practical aspects, 2nd ed. ed. Berlin, New York: Springer, 2006.
26
[27] B. Stephen and V. Lieven, Convex Optimization: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
27
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
FSR Decrement and Coupling Coefficient Increment in Add-Drop Filters
In this paper, effects of the structural parameters on the optical characteristics of an add-drop filter, consisting of two straight waveguides and a micro-ring resonator (MRR), have been investigated. In this research, effects of MRR radius, the width of MRR and waveguide and the gap between MRR and waveguide, on free spectral range (FSR) and coupling coefficient have been studied. It is found thatby enhancing the gap and width, coupling coefficient would be increased at first but after a while it would be decreased. It is also shown that, increasing the radius and width would decrease FSR. The main goal of this research is to decrease FSR and increase the coupling coefficient of add-drop filters, which are widely used in communication applications.
http://jecei.srttu.edu/article_339_00f2a86ab6c0b99cc4670c1f5ca917e1.pdf
2015-06-01T11:23:20
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13
16
10.22061/jecei.2015.339
Add-drop filter
Coupling coefficient
Free spectral range
Micro ring resonator
Esmat
Rafiee
e.rafiee@sutech.ac.ir
true
1
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Fars, Iran
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Fars, Iran
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Fars, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Farzin
Emami
emami@sutech.ac.ir
true
2
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Fars, Iran
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Fars, Iran
Optoelectronic Research Center, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Fars, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] H. Yan, “Integrated optical add-drop multiplexer based on compact parent_submicroring-resonator structure,” Optics Communications, Vol. 289, pp. 53-59, 2013. [
1
2] D. Zhang, Z. Feng, “A channel drop filter in hetero-woodpile structure”, Optik- International Journal for Light and electron Optics. Vol. 125, Issue. 10, pp. 2422-2425, 2014.
2
[3] P.P. Yupapin, N. Sarapat, “Novel micro-scale sensors using WGMS within modified add-drop filter circuits”, Microwave and optical technology letters. Vol. 56, Issue. 1, pp. 14-17, 2014.
3
[4] D.G. Rabus, Integrated ring resonators, The Compendium, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 4-16, 2007.
4
[5] L.F. Mollenauer, J.P. Gordon, Soliton in Optical Fibers: Fundamentals and Applications, 1sted. , Academic Press, pp. 30-75, 2006.
5
[6] Y. Su, F. Liu, Q. Li, “System performance of slow-light buffering and storage in silicon nano-waveguide”, Optical Transmission, Switching, and Subsystems V, Proc. of SPIE. Vol. 6783, pp. 67832-8, 2007.
6
[7] G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear ϐiber optics, 4th ed., Academic Press, pp. 150-190, 2007.
7
[8] I.N. Nawi, H.Hairi, “Analytical Treatment of Parametric Effects in a Ring Resonator”, Procedia Engineering. Vol. 8, pp. 366- 373, 2011.
8
[9] Y. Wang, H. Zhu, B. Li, “Optical characterization of mechanically tunable micro wire based resonators by changing ring radius and wire diameter”, Opt. commun. Vol. 284, Issue. 13, pp. 3276-3279, 2011.
9
[10] O. Schwelb, “Transmission group delay and dispersion characteristics of single-ring optical resonators and add/drop filters – A tutorial overview”, J. Lightw. Technol. Vol. 22, Issue. 5, pp. 1380-1394, 2004.
10
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of Nonlinear Phase Variation in Optical Millimetre Wave Radio over Fibre Systems
In this paper, we propose an optical millimetre wave radio-over-fibre (mm-wave RoF) system that uses a dual drive Mach Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM), which is biased at the maximum transmission biasing point, to generate an optical double sideband-suppressed carrier. The input to the DD-MZM are binary phase shift keying (BPSK), quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 8-phase shift keying (8-PSK) and 16-qaudrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) schemes at a carrier frequency of 5 GHz with a rate of 2 Gsym/s and a local oscillator of 15 GHz obtain an mm-wave RoF signal at 30 GHz. We evaluate the generation and performances of the proposed system in terms of the power penalty, the error vector magnitude and the bit error rate (BER). Impairments including the self-phase modulation, chromatic dispersion and attenuation are considered when modelling the single mode fibre (SMF) based on the symmetrical split step Fourier method. We show that the power efficiency improves in the optimum region on average by ~11 dB, ~11 dB, ~12 dB and ~18 dB for BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK and 16-QAM, respectively for the same optical launch power over 10, 30 and 50 km of SMF compared to the linear and non-linear regions.
http://jecei.srttu.edu/article_354_a65ae28e46eace1b3c3d7fe3e7a5984b.pdf
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17
27
10.22061/jecei.2015.354
Arash
Bahrami
arash.bahrami@northumbria.ac.uk
true
1
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
AUTHOR
Wai
Pang Ng
true
2
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
AUTHOR
Zabih
Ghassemlooy
true
3
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
LEAD_AUTHOR
Thavamaran
Kanesan
drthavamaran@tmrnd.com.my
true
4
TM Research & Development, TM Innovation Centre, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
TM Research & Development, TM Innovation Centre, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
TM Research & Development, TM Innovation Centre, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
AUTHOR
[1] T. S. Rappaport, S. Shu, R. Mayzus, Z. Hang, Y. Azar, K. Wang, et al., “Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!” Access, IEEE. 2013, 1, pp. 335-349.
1
[2] V. Dyadyuk, J. D. Bunton, J. Pathikulangara, R. Kendall, O. Sevimli, L. Stokes, et al., “A Multigigabit Millimeter-Wave Communication System With Improved Spectral Efficiency, Microwave Theory and Techniques”, IEEE Transactions on. 2007, 55(12), pp. 2813-2821.
2
[3] J. Libich, M. Komanec, S. Zvanovec, P. Pesek , W. O. Popoola, and, Z. Ghassemlooy, “Experimental verification of an alloptical dual-hop 10 Gbit/s free-space optics link under turbulence regimes”, Optics Letters, 40 (3), 99. 391-394, Feb. 2015.
3
[4] H. Hao, Y. Jeng-Yuan, Y. Yang, R. Yongxiong, S. R. Nuicco, R. Dinu, et al. “100-Gbit/s amplitude and phase modulation characterization of a single-drive, low-Vπ polymer MachZehnder modulator”, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference; 4-8 March 2012.
4
[5] C. Hung-Chang, H. Yu-Ting, A. Chowdhury, Y. Jianjun, and C . Gee-Kung, “On Frequency-Doubled Optical Millimeter-Wave Generation Technique Without Carrier Suppression for InBuilding Wireless Over Fiber Applications”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE. 2010, 22(3), pp. 182-184.
5
[6] L. Jie, C. Hung-Chang, F. Shu-Hao, C. Biao, Y. Jianjun, H. Sailing, et al. “Efficient Optical Millimeter-Wave Generation Using a Frequency-Tripling Fabry-Pérot Laser With Sideband Injection and Synchronization”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, 2011, 23(18), pp. 1325-1327.
6
[7] M. Pochet, T. Locke, and N. G. Usechak, “Generation and Modulation of a Millimeter-Wave Subcarrier on an Optical Frequency Generated via Optical Injection”, Photonics Journal, IEEE, 2012, 4(5), pp. 1881-1891.
7
[8] S. Yufeng, C. Nan, F. Jingyuan, and F. Wuliang, “Generation of 16-QAM-OFDM Signals Using Selected Mapping Method and Its Application in Optical Millimeter-Wave Access System”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, 2012, 24(15), pp.1301-3.
8
[9] C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. L. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design”, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, 2006, 54(2), pp. 906-920.
9
[10] T. Kanesan, W. P. Ng, Z. Ghassemlooy, and J. Perez, "Optimization of Optical Modulator for LTE RoF in Nonlinear Fiber Propagation," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE vol. 24, pp. 617-619, 2012. Our own publication that focuses on chirping.
10
[11] M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, E. J. M Verdurmen, and J. P Turkiewicz, “Dispersion tolerant radio-over-fibre transmission of 16 and 64 QAM radio signals at 40 GHz”, Electronics Letters, 2006, 42(15), pp. 872-874.
11
[12] A. Madjar, and T. Berceli, “Microwave Generation by Optical Techniques - A Review”, Microwave Conference, 2006 36th European, 2006, pp. 10-15 Sept. 2006.
12
[13] Y. Jianping, Microwave Photonics. Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2009, 27(3), pp. 314-335.
13
[14] M. ianxin, J. Yu, Y. Chongxiu, X . Xiangjun, Z. Junying, and L. Chen, “Fiber Dispersion Influence on Transmission of the Optical Millimeter-Waves Generated Using LN-MZM Intensity Modulation, Lightwave Technology”, Journal of, 2007, 25(11), pp. 3244-3256.
14
[15] S. Po-Tsung, J. Chen, L. Chun-Ting, J. Wen-Jr, Han-Sheng, H. Peng-Chun P, et al, “Optical Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation Via Frequency 12-Tupling, Lightwave Technology”, Journal of, 2010, 28(1), pp. 71-8.
15
[16] F. Paresys, T. Shao, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Bidirectional Millimeter-wave Radio-over-Fiber System Based on Photodiode Mixing and Optical Heterodyning”, Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of, 2013,5(1), pp. 74-80.
16
[17] Z. Weifeng, and Y. Jianping, “Photonic Generation of Millimeter-Wave Signals With Tunable Phase Shift”, Photonics Journal, IEEE, 2012, 4(3), pp. 889-894.
17
[18] W. Yong-Yuk, H. Moon-Ki, S. Yong-Hwan, and H. Sang-Kook, “Colorless two Different Gigabit Data Access Transmissions using Optical Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier and Optical Sideband Slicing”, Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of, 2013, 5(6), pp. 544-553.
18
[19] C. Zizheng, Y. Jianjun, C. Lin, and S. Qinglong, “Reversely Modulated Optical Single Sideband Scheme and Its Application in a 60-GHz Full Duplex ROF System”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, 2012, 24(10), pp. 827-829.
19
[20] H. Yu-Ting, C. Hung-Chang, A. Chowdhury, Y. Jianjun, and C. Gee-Kung, “Performance Assessment of Radio Links Using Millimeter-Wave Over Fiber Technology With Carrier Suppression Through Modulation Index Enhancement”, Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of, 2011, 3(3), pp. 254-258.
20
[21] K. Kyoungsoo, L. Jaehoon, and J. Jichai, “SPM-induced Power Gain in Optical Subcarrier-multiplexed Transmission Systems”, Optical Internet (COIN), 2010, 9th International Conference on, 11-14 July 2010.
21
[22] D. Liang Bangyuan, and A. J. Lowery, “Practical XPM Compensation Method for Coherent Optical OFDM Systems”, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, 2010, 22(5), pp. 320-322.
22
[23] N. M. Nawawi, and S. M. Idrus, “Investigation of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering for the Generation of Millimeter Waves for Radio over Fiber System”, Telecommunication Technologies, 6th National Conference on and 2nd Malaysia Conference on Photonics NCTT-MCP 2008, 26-28 Aug. 2008.
23
[24] M. Lucki “Engineered Chromatic Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fibers Selectively Doped with Water”, Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 12th International Conference on; June 27 -July 1 2010.
24
[25] L. Ming-Jun, L. Shenping, and D. A. Nolan, “Nonlinear Fibers for Signal Processing using Optical Kerr Effects”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2005, 23(11), pp. 3606-3614.
25
[26] P. Mitchell, A. Janssen, and J. K. Luo, “High Performance Laser Linewidth Broadening for Stimulated Brillouin Suppression with Zero Parasitic Amplitude Modulation”, Journal of Applied Physics, 2009, 105(9), pp. 093104--6.
26
[27] Yan G, and Liantang L, Editors, Influence of Space-time Focusing and Simulated Raman Scattering on spatiotemporal Instability in Dispersive Nonlinear Media, Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/Nano-Optics (AOM), OSA-IEEECOS, 3-6 Dec. 2010.
27
[28] Y. M. Karfaa, M. Ismail, F. M. Abbou, S. Shaari, and S. P. Majumder, “Effects of Four-wave Mixing Crosstalk in WDM Networks on the Transmitted Optical Frequencies and Wavelengths of Channels for Various Fiber Types”, AppliedElectromagnetics, APACE 2007, Asia-Paciϐic Conference on, 4- 6 Dec. 2007.
28
[29] A. Dewanjee, M. S. Islam, M. S Monjur, and S. P. Majumder, “Impact of Cross-phase and Self-phase Modulation on the Performance of a Multispan WDM System”, Communications (MICC), IEEE 9th Malaysia International Conference on, 15-17 Dec. 2009.
29
[30] H. Shams, P. M. Anandarajah, P. Perry, and L. P. Barry, “Optical Generation of Modulated Millimeter Waves Based on a GainSwitched Laser”, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, 2010, 58(11), pp. 3372-3380.
30
[31] Q. Guohua, Y. Jianping, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, Z. Xiupu, “Phase-Noise Analysis of Optically Generated Millimeter-Wave Signals With External Optical Modulation Techniques”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2006, 24(12), pp. 4861-4875.
31
[32] L. N. Binh, “Optical Fiber Communications Systems: Theory and Practice with MATLAB® and Simulink® Models” Photonics Oa, editor: CRC Press; 2010. pp. 560.
32
[33] M. Y. Hamza, and S. Tariq, “Split Step Fourier Method Based Pulse Propagation Model for Nonlinear Fiber Optics”, Electrical Engineering, ICEE '07 International Conference on, 11-12 April 2007.
33
[34] R. Deiterding, R. Glowinski, H. Oliver, and S. A. Poole, “Reliable Split-Step Fourier Method for the Propagation Equation of Ultra-Fast Pulses in Single-Mode Optical Fibers”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2013, 31(12), pp. 2008-17. [35] O. V. Sinkin, R Holzlohner, J. Zweck, and C. R. Menyuk, “Optimization of the Split-step Fourier method in Modeling Optical-fiber Communications Systems”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2003, 21(1), pp. 61-8.
34
[36] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fibre Optics, Academic Press 2001.
35
[37] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers, Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester. 2006.
36
[38] Z. Qun, and M. I. Hayee, “Symmetrized Split-Step Fourier Scheme to Control Global Simulation Accuracy in Fiber-Optic Communication Systems”, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 2008, 26(2), pp. 302-316.
37
[39] I. Otung, Communication Engineering Principles, Palgrave, 2001.
38
[40] J. Beas, G. Castanon, I. Aldaya, A. Aragon-Zavala, and G. Campuzano, “Millimeter-Wave Frequency Radio over Fiber Systems: A Survey”, Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, 2013, PP(99), pp. 1-27.
39
[41] S. P. Singh, and N. Singh, “Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers: Origin, Management and Applications”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2007, 73, pp. 249-275.
40
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Biding Strategy in Restructured Environment of Power Market Using Game Theory
In the restructured environment of electricity market, firstly the generating companies and the customers are looking for maximizing their profit and secondly independent system operator is looking for the stability of the power network and maximizing social welfare. In this paper, a one way auction in the electricity market for the generator companies is considered in both perfect and imperfect competition cases. A new model is provided to use the historical data of power market in the state of competition with imperfect information in which two probability functions were simultaneously used for the estimation of required information about each generator company. Nash equilibrium in the game theory is used to find the stability point in the biding strategy of generator companies. The effect of network conditions like limitation of transmission lines, network load, maximum generation of each generator company and the imperfect estimation of information about other competitors on the profit of generator companies and also on the market power of the generators in two mentioned competition methods were shown in the numerical simulation.
http://jecei.srttu.edu/article_355_a330809dcfa01c8152cee3492693f3cb.pdf
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29
36
10.22061/jecei.2015.355
Power market
Game theory
Bidding Strategy
Perfect Information
Imperfect Information
Javad
Shadmani
javad.shadmani@yahoo.com
true
1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Masoud
Rashidinejad
true
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
AUTHOR
Amir
Abdollahi
a.abdollahi@uk.ac.ir
true
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
AUTHOR
Iman
Taheri
i.taheriemami@gmail.com
true
4
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] H. Yan, “Integrated optical add-drop multiplexer based on compact parent_submicroring-resonator structure,” Optics Communications, vol. 289, pp. 53-59, 2013.
1
[2] D. Zhang, Z. Feng, “A channel drop filter in hetero-woodpile structure,” Optik- International Journal for Light and electron Optics, vol. 125, Issue. 10, pp. 2422-2425, 2014.
2
[3] P.P. Yupapin, N. Sarapat, “Novel micro-scale sensors using WGMS within modified add-drop filter circuits,” Microwave and optical technology letters, vol. 56, Issue. 1, pp. 14-17, 2014.
3
[4] D.G. Rabus, Integrated ring resonators, The Compendium, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 4-16, 2007.
4
[5] L.F. Mollenauer, J.P. Gordon, Soliton in Optical Fibers: Fundamentals and Applications, 1sted. , Academic Press, pp. 30-75, 2006.
5
[6] Y. Su, F. Liu, Q. Li, “System performance of slow-light buffering and storage in silicon nano-waveguide,” Optical Transmission, Switching, and Subsystems V, Proc. of SPIE, vol. 6783, pp. 67832-8, 2007.
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[7] G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear ϐiber optics, 4th ed., Academic Press, pp. 150-190, 2007.
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[8] I.N. Nawi, H.Hairi, “Analytical Treatment of Parametric Effects in a Ring Resonator,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 366- 373, 2011.
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[9] Y. Wang, H. Zhu, B. Li, “Optical characterization of mechanically tunable micro wire based resonators by changing ring radius and wire diameter,” Opt. commun, vol. 284, Issue. 13, pp. 3276-3279, 2011.
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[10] O. Schwelb, “Transmission group delay and dispersion characteristics of single-ring optical resonators and add/drop filters – A tutorial overview,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 22, Issue. 5, pp. 1380-1394, 2004.
10
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analysis and Comparison of PAPR Reduction Techniques in OFDM Systems
The destructive impact of fading environments and also bandwidth limitations are two main challenges which communication is dealing with them. These challenges can affect on the growth of wireless communication and even cause reliable communications and high data rate to be prevented. Thus, OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation by using of fast calculation hardwares such as FFT, high ability for combating multipath fading and appropriate spectral efficiency has taken into consideration. However, we should know that OFDM systems potentially have high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). This drawback drives the power amplifier into saturation leading to higher distortions and also degrades BER performance. Since increasing the dynamic range of power amplifier is not affordable, reduction of the PAPR is so important. In this paper, we investigate the PAPR and its reduction methods by using the theoretical and numerical analysis. These techniques can be classified into two main categories, signal distortion techniques, multiple signaling and probabilistic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are derived from different prospectives. Moreover, we compare the numerical results of the techniques in the first classification from BER prospective which demonstrates that for changing the parameters corresponding to each technique, its performance can be changed greatly. Hence, we are sure that a technique can not outperform the other ones in all cases. Finally, the computational complexity of the techniques in the second classification are compared to each other which their results show that TR and TI techniques are much more complex than the other ones.
http://jecei.srttu.edu/article_372_1f3f1bdb620d19386991970c2dd28a2a.pdf
2015-06-01T11:23:20
2018-03-21T11:23:20
37
45
10.22061/jecei.2015.372
OFDM
PAPR
PAPR reduction methods
Mohammad Bagher
Noori Shirazi
true
1
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ali
Golestani
true
2
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Hamed
Ahmadian Yazdi
true
3
Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Amir Habibi
Daronkola
true
4
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] X.D. Yang, et al., “Performance analysis of the OFDM scheme in DVB-T,” in Proc. the 6th IEEE Circuits and Systerms Symp. on Emerging Tech., vol. 2, Shanghai, China, 31 May- 2 June 2004, pp. 489-492.
1
[2] M. Al-Gharabally and P. Das, “Performance analysis of OFDM in frequency selective timevariant channels with application to IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless access,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Military Comm. (MILCOM), vol. 1, Oct. 2005, pp. 351-356.
2
[3] R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications, Artech House Publisher, Norwood, 2000. [4] E. Dahlman, S. Parkvall, and J. Skold, “4G LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband,” Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, 2011.
3
[5] Y. Rahmatallah and S. Mohan, “Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM systems: A survey and taxonomy,” IEEE Commun. Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1567-1592, Feb. 2013.
4
[6] S. H. Han and J. H. Lee, “An overview of peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for multicarrier transmission,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 56–65, Apr. 2005.
5
[7] M. Sharif, M. Gharavi-Alkhansari, and B. H. Khalaj, “On the peak-to-average power of OFDM signals based on oversampling,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 72–78, Jan. 2003.
6
[8] C. Tellambura, “Computation of the continuous-time PAR of an OFDM signal with BPSK subcarriers,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 185–187, May 2001. [9] Xiao, L. Jianhua, C. Justin, and Z. Junli, “Companding transform for the reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM signals,” in Proc. IEEE Vehicular Tech. Conf. (VTC) , 2001, pp. 835–839. [10] H. Xiao, L. Jianhua, Z. Junli, J. Chuang, and G. Jun, “Reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM signals with companding transform,” IEE Electronic Letters, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 506–507, April 2001.
7
[11] S. H. S. Y. L. Goff, S. S. Al-Samahi, B. K. Khoo, C. C. Tsimenidis, and B. S. Sharif, “Selected mapping without side information for PAPR reduction in OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3320–3325, July 2009.
8
[12] A. D. S. Jayalath and C. Tellambura, “SLM and PTS peak-power reduction of OFDM signals without side information,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 2006–2013, Sept. 2005.
9
[13] W. S. Ho, A. S. Madhukumar, and F. Chin, “Peak-to-average power reduction using partial transmit sequences: A suboptimal approach based on dual layered phase sequencing,” in Proc. IEEE Vehicular Tech. Conf. (VTC), April 2003, pp. 1268–1272.
10
[14] Wang, Sen-Hung, et al. “A low-complexity symbol interleaving based PAPR reduction scheme for OFDM systems,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Commun. (ICC), 2013, pp. 4693-4697.
11
[15] Chen, Jung-Chieh, and Chao-Kai Wen. “PAPR reduction of OFDM signals using cross-entropy-based tone injection schemes,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, pp. 727-730, 2010.
12
[16] T. Jiang and Y. Wu, "An Overview: peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for OFDM signals, "IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, vol. 54, no. 2, June 2008.
13
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
TDL-based Wideband Beamforming for Radio Sources Close to the Array Endfire
Uniform linear array (ULA)-based tapped-delay line (TDL) structure has good performance metrics when the signal sources are located at the middle angles. It offers poor performance when the signal sources are close to the array endfire. In this paper, a new approach is proposed which offers higher performance and desired beamforming on TDL structure when the wideband uncorrelated radio sources are close to the array endfire. This new TDL structure is based on Shirvani-Akbari array (SAA). Numerical results of this investigation show that both ULA-based and SAA-based TDL structures have the same performance where the signals of interest located at the middle angles. But, where the signals are close to the array endfire, the SAA-based TDL structure has much higher performance. In order to find a good comparison, the absolute array factor (AF) in center frequency for different angles and three well-known performance metrics, normalized mean square error (NMSE), signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) and bit error rate (BER) are evaluated for both ULA-based and SAA-based TDL structures.
http://jecei.srttu.edu/article_373_d8d91fa218187d5469604e3a92fa29a0.pdf
2015-06-01T11:23:20
2018-03-21T11:23:20
47
53
10.22061/jecei.2015.373
Array endfire
Uniform linear array (ULA)
Shirvani-Akbari array (SAA)
Tapped-delay line (TDL)
Nasrollah
Solgi
true
1
Digital Communications Signal Processing (DCSP) Research Lab., Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
Digital Communications Signal Processing (DCSP) Research Lab., Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
Digital Communications Signal Processing (DCSP) Research Lab., Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] S. Kamboj, R. Dahiya, “Adaptive antenna array for satellite communication systems,” International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists, vol. 2, pp. 1491‐1494, 19‐ 21 March 2008.
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12
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13
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14
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15
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17
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18
[19] S. Shirvani Moghaddam, N. Solgi, “A comparative study on TDL and SDL structures for wideband antenna array beamforming,” International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 388‐395, August 2011.
19
[20] S. Shirvani Moghaddam, F. Akbari, "A novel ULA‐based geometry for improving AOA estimation," EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2011 (39), pages 1‐9, August 2011.
20